Coenzyme Q10: A CoQ10 Bioenergetics Synopsis


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"Hundreds of scientific studies have been published on CoQ10, including many involving humans. CoQ10 has also been the subject of ten international scientific and medical meetings. Furthermore, the role of CoQ10 in energy production was basis of the 1978 Nobel prize in chemistry, given to Peter Mitchell, Ph.D...


"Unfortunately, most doctors in the US are not familiar with the published research regarding the potential of CoQ10 because many of the journals they read rarely discuss the benefits of this and many other nutrients. The reason for this is very simple, nutrients cannot be patented so they are of very little interest to pharmaceutical companies and drug manufacturing laboratories and these are the companies that sponsor and publish most of the journals read by doctors. However, traveling around Europe, China, Japan and South America, has shown me that the story is completely different in the rest of the world, where most health-care professionals are treating their patients with heart failure and other conditions by prescribing CoQ10. In fact, CoQ10 is the fifth most commonly prescribed "drug" in Japan."

This is a good adjunct to the following post on Coenzyme Q10.

Chris Gupta

CO Q-10 100 mg. Softgels
- Coenzyme Q10 is present throughout the human body. It aids metabolic reactions, such as the transformation of food into ATP, the energy used by the body. Cell mitochondria (the part of cells where energy is produced) show the greatest concentration of coenzyme Q10 in the body. Similarly, organs that contain higher ...

Lipoic acid - the drug of the future?
by Bilska, A. and Wlodek, L.
Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Medical College,
Jagiellonian University,
Kopernika 7, PL 31-034 Krakow, Poland.
mbwlodek @ cyf-kr.edu.pl.

Numerous experimental and clinical studies proved efficiency of treatment with lipoic acid-containing drugs in diseases, in which pro- and antioxidant balance is disrupted (diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, acquired immune deficiency syndrom (AIDS), tumors, etc.). Efficiency of lipoate has been attributed to unique antioxidant properties of lipoate/dihydrolipoate system, its reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability and significant effect on the tissue concentrations of reduced forms of other antioxidants, including one of the most powerful, glutathione (thus lipoate is called an antioxidant of antioxidants). Moreover, analysis of literature data suggests participation of lipoic acid in processes of cell growth and differentiation. This fact can be crucial to clinical practice, however, this problem requires further studies.

CoQ10 + Alpha Lipoic Acid + Acetyl L-Carnitine - 60 Caps - Our CoQ10 combo has three powerful antioxidants -- coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid, and acetyl L-CARNITINE -- that protect cells from free radical damage and increase cellular energy production (anti-aging). These three antioxidants have been shown in clinical studies to protect the heart and brain. This CoQ10 Combo may be useful for increasing energy levels and protecting the heart and brain. CoQ10 All CoQ10 formulas contain a superior, pharmaceutical-grade, natural "trans" ...

- Enhanced Absorption formula. Promotes Cellular Energy Production...

- The Fastest Absorbing CoQ10 EVER! ResultsSupports cardiovascular and circulatory healthy.Supports antioxidant defense. Supports energy productions...

- Co-Enzyme Q10, also known as Ubiquinone, is a lipodal vitamin-like substance that serves as a vital catalyst of cellular energy in every cell in the human body. It is found in high concentrations in heart muscle, the liver, and the gums. Isolated in its pure form in 1957, researchers found it to be an essential substance involved in cell respiration, electron transfer, and the control of oxidation reactions.A recent review of its therapeutic benefits suggests Co-Q10 may become standard thera ...

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The body uses the water-soluble vitamin B3 in the process of releasing energy from carbohydrates. It is needed to form fat from carbohydrates and to process alcohol. The niacin form of vitamin B3 also regulates cholesterol, though niacinamide does not...

Niacin is an essential B vitamin that plays many roles, including promoting cardiovascular, brain, digestive and skin health. Niacin is involved in numerous reactions inside of cells that convert food into cellular energy.

Niacin is also involved in the activity of enzymes that transport and break down fats, proteins, carbohydrates, and other molecules formed from food. No Flush Niacin is a safer form of niacin that is inositol bound. No Flush Niacin is better tolerated because it is does not produce gastrointestinal discomfort, or have the characteristic »flush« of producing red and itchy face and neck. Niacin is particularly helpful in promoting healthy cholesterol levels. A normal function of niacin is to help remove fats (triglycerides) from tissues and the bloodstream. Numerous studies prove niacin`s ability to raise HDL (good cholesterol) and lower LDL (bad cholesterol).

The Physicians guide to nutritional supplementation on health and disease: coenzymeq10

Positive results on exercise tolerance in angina. Excellent results with cardiomyopathy in 6 year, 143 patent study showing reductions in HYHA classes with no side effects. Good results in muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies. Some reported effect on regression of breast and liver cancer. - It is well proven that once we reach midlife, brain cells start dying. By the time we are in our 70's - 80's, we have lost a great amount of brain cells that control movement, memory, cognitive function, etc. Mitochondria are thought of as the "power plants" within our cells. Perhaps the best studied disease regarding mitochondrial dysfunction would be that of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting more than one million people in this country. One researcher indicates there are several nutrients shown in studies to have promising benefits for mitochondrial disorders.

NEW! cardiovascular-health support formula! Combination of tocotrienols, tocopherols and CoQ10 provide powerful antioxidant protection:

ToCoQ10 is a breakthrough, superior formula containing a combination of nutrients ideal for cardiovascular health. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), tocotrienols and tocopherols (potent forms of vitamin E) promote healthy heart function, provide powerful antioxidant protection and support the immune system in its daily defense of the body.

CoQ10 is a vitamin-like nutrient found in high concentration in heart cells. Levels decline with age, which may lead to less-efficient functioning. Tocotrienols and tocopherols help fight free radicals, which attack healthy cells and may lead to disease and aging. This formula contains Bioperine� for enhanced absorption:

�Statin induced Parkinson�s Syndrome�

The following is a translation of �Statin induced Parkinson�s Syndrome� which is a letter responding to an article in Der Nevenarzt (German Medical Journal) authored by J. Finsterer (2003) 74:115-122. The article reads as though it is a review of myopathies induced by statins. The letter is authored by Dr. Th. Muller:

"To the excellent review about the development of myopathies following long-term medication of cholesterol level decreasing fibrates and statins, there should be considered in regard additional differential diagnostic possibilities.

Because of the similar clinical symptomatology with muscle aches and increased stiffness, the diagnosis of statin-induced aggravated Parkinson Disease Syndrome should be discussed. The development of such muscular side effects is seen more with statins than with fibrates. The case report in Table 1 indicates the history of a 60 year old patient with statin-induced Parkinson Syndrome occurring over a long time. On the other hand, with central effective statins, a possible neuro-protective effect in neuro-degenerative diseases has been considered, especially in dementia.

But long term use of statins, especially Lovastatin, leads to the reduction of coenzyme Q10 and can cause damage of the mitochondrial breathing chain. Co-Q10 is an electron receptor in the mitochondrial complexes 1 > and 2 and very effective absorber of radicals. This antigen substance increases the complex 1 activity. Co-Q10 shows a certain therapeutic effect with encephalomyopathy where there is a lack of various enzyme functions of the breathing chain. Dysfunction of various parts of the mitochondrial breathing chain is also considered in the pathophysiological mechanism of idiopathic Parkinson�s disease.

Treatment with Co-Q10 in patients who are not treated with Dopamine for Parkinson patients, caused less disease symptomatology and progression than patients treated with placebo, though placebo treatment can cause stimulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Therefore, the long-term treatment with Co-Q10 possibly is neuroprotective in idiopathic morbid Parkinson, though new evidence shows it appears to cause mild symptomatic effect.

Prophylactic medication of Co-Q10 which has been well tolerated in doses up to 1200 mg in patients with neurodegenerative diseases should be considered for statin myopathy or statin-induced Parkinson syndrome in addition to discontinuation of the cholesterol decreasing medication. The Table 1 summarizes a patient with Parkinson syndrome. Extract:

1995, Start of therapy with Flurastatin 40 mg. 1997 increasing weakness with shoulder and hip pain on the right 1999- diagnosis of right sided Parkinson syndrome of akinetic dominance type. Careful induction of Pergolid with daily doses of 3 mg and Salagen 7.5 mgm 2000 complaints about increasing edema development in legs, loss o hair, start of a pot--------ium sparing diuretic and increasing of Pergolid medication from 4.5 mg in June 2000 to 6 mgm in December. March 2001 discontinuation of Flurastatin, continuation of Pergolid 6 mg June 2001 reduction of Pergolid to 4 mgm Sept 2001 Pergolid 3 mgm Improvement of edema December 2001 discontinuation of Pergolid and diuretics March, 2002 discontinuation of Salagen"

Anyone else who feels their parkinson's diagnosis is associated with one of the statins can make public comments by clicking here. Read more about statins here.

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4 Ways In Which You Can Use Coenzyme Q10
by Charles Silverman

Sometimes I ask myself why this wonderful antioxidant supplement was given such a technical name, many people feel intimidated by the name alone, thus refusing to take CoQ10. But the truth is that this nutrient is one of the most effective antioxidants and it has been proven to help many serious diseases. In this issue, we will study in depth the benefits and properties that researchers have found in this "vitamin like" substance called Coenzyme Q10. Probably you haven't even heard the name Coenzyme Q10, or if you have, you don't even know what it does or why you should take it. The potential and most of the properties found in CoQ10 have been recognized rather recently. CoQ10 is known to scientists as ubiquinol, this is a naturally occurring nutrient normally present in every cell in the body, so it is only logical to believe that it plays an important part in treating many conditions and preventing them. The body makes CoQ10, but most likely the majority of people don't make it well or enough of it, the good news is that we can absorb CoQ10 from foods, especially fish, and meats (particularly organ meats like liver, kidney, etc., more on this later), the bad news is that most people don't eat these types of meats, plus as we age the body loses it efficiency in manufacturing important nutrients, it has been proven that people suffering from heart diseases and cancer have lower levels of CoQ10, thus supplementation is recommended.

See:

 Statin Drugs & Coenzyme Q10 Depletion

 CoQ10 (coenzyme Q10) and Cancer

 Coenzyme Q10 Parkinson's disease



1. CoQ10 helps in the energy production within each cell

The body, just like a car, needs fuel. Our primary source of fuel is through fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in our diet. After digestion in the stomach, the nutrients from foodstuffs are absorbed into the bloodstream and circulate to various tissues and cells. The cells have to break down the sugars, fats and amino acids in a form that makes energy. This energy production occurs in organelles, or microscopic organ-like structures, called mitochondria, and CoQ10 plays a key role in this activity.

There are hundreds, sometimes thousands, of mitochondria within each cell. In a sense, they are the factories of your cells, with the final product being energy. The energy that is produced is stored in a chemical called adenosine triphosphate, or simply ATP. It is carried by electrons and protons, which are sub atomic particles. These energetic electrons and protons are moved around in cells to their destinations by numerous compounds. CoQ10 is one of the most important compounds.

2. CoQ10 as an antioxidant

CoQ10 also serves as an antioxidant, which is its second role. By controlling the movement of electrons, CoQ10 limits the production of dangerous free radicals, which are molecules lacking one electron in what should be a pair.

To learn more about free radicals and antioxidants click here.

So far many researches and clinical studies have shown CoQ10 to be an amazing tool that helps us fight and prevent many dangerous conditions.

Among these are:

 Congestive heart failure

 Coronary artery disease
 High cholesterol
 High blood pressure
 Mitral valve prolapse
 Breast Cancer
 Periodontitis or Gingivitis
 and Fatigue


3. CoQ10 prevents many conditions

Another important aspect in the uses of CoQ10, is the prevention of many conditions, CoQ10 helps maintain normal heart function and preventing serious heart disease. Our heart works 24 hrs a day, using lots of energy, to pump blood though the body, and since CoQ10 plays an important role in energy production, it has shown to be a very valuable heart energizing nutrient.

But why doctors don't recommend more the use of CoQ10?

Hundreds of scientific studies have been published on CoQ10, including many involving humans. CoQ10 has also been the subject of ten international scientific and medical meetings. Furthermore, the role of CoQ10 in energy production was basis of the 1978 Nobel prize in chemistry, given to Peter Mitchell, Ph.D.

Unfortunately, most doctors in the US are not familiar with the published research regarding the potential of CoQ10 because many of the journals they read rarely discuss the benefits of this and many other nutrients. The reason for this is very simple: Nutrients cannot be patented so they are of very little interest to pharmaceutical companies and drug manufacturing laboratories and these are the companies that sponsor and publish most of the journals read by [U.S.] doctors. However, traveling around Europe, China, Japan and South America, has shown me that the story is completely different in the rest of the world, where most health-care professionals are treating their patients with heart failure and other conditions by prescribing CoQ10. In fact, CoQ10 is the fifth most commonly prescribed "drug" in Japan.

4. How to get it from food

How much CoQ10 do we get from foods and is it enough?

Dietary intake of CoQ10 normally ranges from 2 to 20 mg a day. Most of this comes from meats and fish. The richest source of CoQ10 is organ meat, like liver, kidney, and heart (so you should eat more paté). If you don't eat these types of meats, chances are that your body does not have adequate level of CoQ10. Supplements in these cases is recommended. Younger people tend to get enough CoQ10 from food and from their own body production, but as we age the ability of the body to make and absorb CoQ10 drops significantly, for people in the middle age group I recommend a dosage of 30mg a day, although people taking 60 to 100 mg a day have reported a significant improvement in alertness, energy level, motivation, mood elevation, and enhanced focus. Fortunately, CoQ10 has no serious side effects, 1.5 percent of people taking 60 to 100 mg a day have reported nausea, and insomnia, due to the energizing effects of CoQ10. Also, this wonderful nutrient can be taken for years non-stop with only positive results. I recommend to start slow, with a dosage of 10 mg a day and gradually increase it to the desired dosage or until satisfactory results have been achieved. (Recommended dosages as provided by Puritan's Pride, Physician's Choice, and Vitamin World are based upon healthy middle aged adults with average active lifestyles. Higher dosages of 400 mg and up are recommended in cases of extreme Co-Q10 depletion. Such conditions can be induced by certain drugs such as statins described above. Ask your personal physician about Coenzyme Q10 and other nutrional therapies as opposed to allopathic orthodox medicine.)

Coenzyme Q10 Ubidecarenone

Ubidecarenone
Ubiquinone

Coenzyme Q10 (also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, Q10, or simply Q) is a benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group, and 10 refers to the isoprenyl chemical subunits.

This oil-soluble vitamin-like substance is present in most eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, generating energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body's energy is generated this way.[1][2] Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements - such as the heart and the liver - have the highest CoQ10 concentrations.[3][4][5]


History

Coenzyme Q10 was first discovered by professor Fred L. Crane and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Enzyme Institute in 1957.[6][7] In 1958, its chemical structure was reported by Professor Karl Folkers and coworkers at Merck.[8][7]

Chemical properties

The oxidized structure of CoQ10 is shown on the top right. The various kinds of Coenzyme Q can be distinguished by the number of isoprenoid side-chains they have. The most common CoQ in human mitochondria is Q10. The 10 refers to the number of isoprene repeats. The image below has three isoprenoid units and would be called Q3.

If Coenzyme Q is reduced by one equivalent, the following structure results, a ubisemiquinone, and is denoted QH. Note the free-radical on one of the ring oxygens (either oxygen may become a free-radical, in this case the top oxygen is shown as such).

Biochemical role

Electron transport chain ("UQ" visible in green near center.)

CoQ is found in the membranes of many organelles. Since its primary function in cells is in generating energy, the highest concentration is found on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. Some other organelles that contain CoQ10 include endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, lysosomes, and vesicles.

Supplementation

Because of its ability to transfer electrons and therefore act as an antioxidant, Coenzyme Q is used as a dietary supplement.

According to the Mayo Clinic[9] "CoQ10 has been used, recommended, or studied for numerous conditions, but remains controversial as a treatment in many areas." Further clinical results are needed to determine whether the supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for healthy people.

Mitochondrial disorders

Supplementation of Coenzyme Q10 is a treatment for some of the very rare and serious mitochondrial disorders and other metabolic disorders, where patients are not capable of producing enough coenzyme Q10 because of their disorder. Coenzyme Q10 is then prescribed by a physician.[10]

Heart Failure

There is some clinical evidence[11] that supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial treatment of patients with congestive heart failure. However, The American College of Cardiology recently published an expert consensus document concluding that the value of coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular disease has not been clearly established.[12] The Mayo clinic says that there is not enough scientific evidence to recommend for or against the use of CoQ10 in patients with coronary heart disease.[9]

Migraine headaches

Supplementation of Coenzyme Q10 has been found to have a beneficial effect on the condition of some sufferers of migraine headaches. So far, three studies have been done, of which two were small, did not have a placebo group, were not randomized, and were open-label,[13] and one was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, which found statistically significant results despite its small sample size of 42 patients.[14] Dosages were 150 to 300 mg/day.

Cancer

It is also being investigated as a treatment for cancer, and as relief from cancer treatment side-effects.[15]

Cardiac arrest

Another recent study shows a survival benefit after cardiac arrest if coenzyme Q10 is administered in addition to commencing active cooling (to 32?34 degrees Celsius).[16]

Blood pressure

There are several reports concerning the effect of CoQ10 on blood pressure in human studies.[17] In a recent meta-analysis of the clinical trials of CoQ10 for hypertension, a research group led by Professor Frank Rosenfeldt (Director, Cardiac Surgical Research Unit, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia) reviewed all published trials of Coenzyme Q10 for hypertension, and assessed overall efficacy, consistency of therapeutic action, and side-effect incidence. Meta-analysis was performed in 12 clinical trials (362 patients) comprising three randomized controlled trials, one crossover study, and eight open-label studies. The research group concluded that coenzyme Q10 has the potential in hypertensive patients to lower systolic blood pressure by up to 17 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by up to 10 mm Hg without significant side-effects.[18]

Lifespan

Studies have shown that low dosages of coenzyme Q10 reduce oxidation and DNA double-strand breaks, and a combination of a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 supplementation leads to a longer lifespan in rats.[19] This research may have absolutely no bearing with respect to human life-extension, and subsequent studies will help elucidate the relevance of pilot studies such as this one.

Biosynthesis

The benzoquinone portion of Coenzyme Q10 is synthesized from tyrosine, whereas the isoprene sidechain is synthesized from acetyl-CoA through the mevalonate pathway. The mevalonate pathway is also used for the first steps of cholesterol biosynthesis.

Inhibition by statins and beta blockers

Coenzyme Q10 shares a common biosynthetic pathway with cholesterol. The synthesis of an intermediary precursor of Coenzyme Q10, mevalonate, is inhibited by some beta blockers, blood pressure-lowering medication,[20] and statins, a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs.[21] Statins can reduce serum levels of coenzyme Q10 by up to 40%.[22] Some research suggests the logical option of supplementation with coenzyme Q10 as a routine adjunct to any treatment that may reduce endogenous production of coenzyme Q10, based on a balance of likely benefit against very small risk.[23][24]

Absorption and metabolism

CoQ10 is a crystalline powder that is insoluble in water due to its lipophilicity. It has a relatively high molecular weight (Mr = 863) and its solubility in lipids is also limited so it is very poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.[25],[26] Absorption follows the same process as that of lipids and the uptake mechanism appears to be similar to that of vitamin E, another lipid-soluble nutrient; Emulsification and micelle formation is required for the absorption of fats. For CoQ10, this process is chiefly facilitated by secretions from the pancreas and bile in the small intestine.[27] A general rule is that the higher the dose that is orally administered, the lower is the percent of the dose absorbed.[27]

Data on the metabolism of CoQ10 in animals and humans are limited.[25] A study with 14C-labelled CoQ10 in rats showed most of the radioactivity in the liver 2 hours after oral administration when the peak plasma radioactivity was observed, but it should be noted that CoQ9 is the predominant form of coenzyme Q in rats.[28] It seems that CoQ10 is metabolised in all the tissues, while a major route for its elimination is biliary and fecal excretion. After the withdrawal of CoQ10 supplementation, the levels return to their normal levels within a few days, irrespective of the type of formulation used.[29]

Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability

Some reports have been published on the pharmacokinetics of CoQ10. The plasma peak can be observed 2-6 hours after oral administration, mainly depending on the design of the study. In some studies, a second plasma peak was also observed at about 24 hours after administration, probably due to both enterohepatic recycling and redistribution from the liver to circulation.[30] Tomono et al. used deuterium-labelled crystalline CoQ10 to investigate pharmacokinetics in human and determined an elimination half-time of 33 hours.[31]

Bioavailability is the degree to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the target tissue after administration.[32] By definition, intravenously administered drugs have 100% bioavailability while decreased bioavailability can be observed when medication is administered via other routes. When orally administered, the substance has to pass the intestinal wall and then travels to the liver through portal circulation. These processes form part of the 1st pass metabolism and allow a drug to achieve systemic circulation. Insufficient time for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is usually reflected in low bioavailability[33] This is very common for orally administered compounds with poor water-solubility, such as Coenzyme Q10. High inter- and intra-individual variations of bioavailability can often be observed in such cases. Several physiological factors influence the bioavailability of drugs, such as sex, age, genetic phenotype, physical activity, health of the gastrointestinal tract and various disorders, type of administration (fed or fasted state), interactions with food etc. Relative bioavailability is one of the measurement tools used to assess the bioequivalence between two formulations of the same drug and is usually calculated as a test vs. reference ratio of the area under the curve (AUC), derived by the integration of the plasma concentration?time relationship after a single oral dose.

Improving the bioavailability of CoQ10

The importance of how drugs are formulated for bioavailability is well known. In order to find a principle to boost the bioavailability of CoQ10 after oral administration, several new approaches have been taken and different formulations and forms have been developed and tested on animals or humans.[25]

Reduction of particle size

The obvious strategy is reduction of the particle size to as low as the micro- and nano-scale. Nanoparticles have been explored as a delivery system for various drugs and an improvement of the oral bioavailability of drugs with poor absorption characteristics has been reported;[34] the pathways of absorption and the efficiency were affected by reduction of particle size. This protocol has so far not proved to be very successful with CoQ10, although reports have differed widely.[35],[36] The use of the aqueous suspension of finely powdered CoQ10 in pure water has also only revealed a minor effect.[37]

Soft-gel capsules with CoQ10 in oil suspension

A successful approach was to use the emulsion system to facilitate absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and to improve bioavailability. Emulsions of soybean oil (lipid microspheres) could be stabilised very effectively by lecithin and were utilised in the preparation of soft gelatine capsules. In one of the first such attempts, Ozawa et al. performed a pharmacokinetic study on beagle dogs in which the emulsion of CoQ10 in soybean oil was investigated; about two times higher plasma CoQ10 level than that of the control tablet preparation was determined during administration of a lipid microsphere.[37] Although an almost negligible improvement of bioavailability was observed by Kommuru et al. with oil-based soft-gel capsules in a later study on dogs,[38] the significantly increased bioavailability of CoQ10 was confirmed for several oil-based formulations in most other studies.[39]

Novel forms of CoQ10 with increased water-solubility

Facilitating drug absorption by increasing its solubility in water is a common pharmaceutical strategy and has also been shown to be successful for Coenzyme Q10. Different approaches have been developed to achieve this goal, with many of them producing significantly better results over oil-based soft-gel capsules in spite of the many attempts to optimize their composition.[25] Examples of such approaches are use of the aqueous dispersion of solid CoQ10 with tyloxapol polymer,[40] formulations based on various solubilising agents, i.e. hydrogenated lecithin, [41] and complexation with cyclodextrins; among the latter, complex with ?-cyclodextrin has been found to have highly increased bioavailability.[42] and is also used in pharmaceutical and food industry for CoQ10-fortification.[25] Also some other novel carrier systems like liposomes, nanoparticles, dendrimers etc can be used to increase the bioavailability of Coenzyme Q10.

Occurrence in nature

CoQ10 occurs in mackerel and herring fresh heart tissue in concentrations of 105-148 ?g/g. In fresh mackerel "red and white tissue," CoQ10 concentrations of 67 and 15 ?g/g, respectively, have been reported. In fresh herring tissue, an amount of 15?24 ?g/g of CoQ10 has been reported.[43]

Cooking by frying reduces Q10 content from 14-32%.[44]

I hope this helps you come to the conclusion that Coenzyme Q10 is one of most important essential nutrients which are needed for a healthy body and to treat several conditions. If you want to learn more about vitamins and herbal remedies please visit: www.homemademedicine.com

Charles Silverman N.D. Author of "The Homemade Medicine" e-Book 1st. Edition and Owner and editor of www.homeademedicine.com website.

Statins could initiate and/or accelerate malignant growth by blocking the production of Coenzyme Q10, which has been shown to have anti-cancer effects.
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References

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  2. ^ Dutton PL, Ohnishi T, Darrouzet E, Leonard, MA, Sharp RE, Cibney BR, Daldal F and Moser CC. 4 Coenzyme Q oxidation reduction reactions in mitochondrial electron transport (pp 65-82) in Coenzyme Q: Molecular mechanisms in health and disease edited by Kagan VE and Quinn PJ, CRC Press (2000), Boca Raton
  3. ^ Okamoto, T.et al (1989) Interna.J.Vit.Nutr.Res.,59,288-292
  4. ^ Aberg,F.et al (1992)Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 295, 230-234
  5. ^ Shindo, Y., Witt, E., Han, D., Epstein, W., and Packer, L., Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin, Invest. Dermatol., 102 (1994) 122-124.
  6. ^ Crane F, Hatefi Y, Lester R, Widmer C (1957). "Isolation of a quinone from beef heart mitochondria". Biochim Biophys Acta 25 (1): 220?1. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(57)90457-2. PMID 13445756.
  7. ^ a b Peter H. Langsjoen, "Introduction of Coezyme Q10"
  8. ^ Wolf DE, Hoffman CH, Trenner NR, Arison BH, Shunk CH, Linn BD, McPherson JF, and Folkers K. Structure studies on the coenzyme Q group. J Am Chem Soc 1958: 80:4752.
  9. ^ a b Mayo Clinic Drugs and Supplements: Coenzyme Q10 (accessed 13 November 2008)
  10. ^ Berbel-Garcia, A.; et al. (July 2004). "Coenzyme Q 10 improves lactic acidosis, strokelike episodes, and epilepsy in a patient with MELAS". Clinical Neuropharmacology 27: 187?191. doi:10.1097/01.wnf.0000137862.67131.bf. PMID 15319706.
  11. ^ Peter H. Langsjoen, University of Washington, INTRODUCTION TO COENZYME Q10 (accessed 13 November 2008)
  12. ^ ROBERT ALAN BONAKDAR and ERMINIA GUARNERI, American Family Physician page on CoEnzyme Q10 (accessed 13 November 2008)
  13. ^ Rozen T, Oshinsky M, Gebeline C, Bradley K, Young W, Shechter A, Silberstein S (2002). "Open label trial of coenzyme Q10 as a migraine preventive". Cephalalgia 22 (2): 137?41. doi:10.1046/j.1468-2982.2002.00335.x. PMID 11972582. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1046/j.1468-2982.2002.00335.x.
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